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The Lives of Women in America During and After the Revolution
General U.S. Women's History
Religious Upheavals (and Violence) After the American Revolution
Courtship, Marriage, and Sexuality
Maine's History, from the Revolution to Statehood
Material Culture and Everyday New England Life 200 Years Ago
Using Diaries and Journals
Film and History
The History of Midwifery in the United States
Some Early Midwifery Manuals and Publications
The History of 18th-Century Western Medicine


  The Lives of Women in America During and After the Revolution


Cott, Nancy.
The Bonds of Womanhood: "Women's Sphere" in New England 1780-1835.
New Haven:Yale University Press, 1977.

Dayton, Cornelia.
Women Before the Bar: Gender, Law, and Society in Connecticut, 1639-1789.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Groneman, Carol and Mary Beth Norton, eds.
"To Toil the Livelong Day": America's Women at Work, 1780-1980
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Hoffman, Ronald, and Albert, Peter, eds.
Women in the Age of the American Revolution.

Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989.

Kerber, Linda.
Women of the American Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Norton, Mary Beth.
Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800.

Boston: Little Brown, 1980.

Scott, Joan Wallach.
Gender and the Politics of History.

New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher.
A Midwife's Tale: Discovering the Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary 1785-1812.

New York: Alfred Knopf, 1990.


  General US Women's History


Cott, Nancy, ed.
History of Women in the United States: Historical Articles on Women's Lives and Activities.

20 volumes. Munich: K.G. Saur, 1994.
A multi-volume, scholarly collection by theme, including Volume 2 - Household Constitution and Family Relationships, Volume 3 - Domestic Relations and Law, Volume 4 - Domestic Ideology and Domestic Work, Volume 5 - The Intersection of Work and Family Life, Volume 6 - Working on the Land, Volume 11 - Women's Bodies: Health and Childbirth, Volume 15 - Women and War, and Volume 18 - Women and Politics.

———, ed.
Root of Bitterness: Documents of the Social History of American Women.
2nd ed.
Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996.

Evans, Sarah.
Born for Liberty : A History of Women in America.

New York: The Free Press, 1989.

Hufton, Olwen.
The Prospect Before Her: A History of Women In Western Europe.

New York: Alfred Knopf, 1996.

Kerber, Linda, and Jane DeHart Mathews, eds.
Women's America: Refocusing the Past.
4th ed.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Kerber, Linda.
No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship.

New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.

Moynihan, Ruth, Cynthia Russett, and Laurie Crumpacker, eds.
Second to None: A Documentary History of American Women

Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1993.

Ruiz, Vicki, and Ellen DuBois.
Unequal Sisters: A Multicultural Reader in US Women's History.
2nd ed.
New York: Routledge, 1994.

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  Religious Upheavals (and Violence) After the American Revolution


Bowden, Karen, ed.
Maine in the Early Republic: From Revolution to Statehood.
Hanover: University Press of New England, 1988.

Cohen, Patricia Cline.
The Murder of Helen Jewett: the Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth Century New York.

New York: Knopf, 1998.

Clark, Charles.
The Meetinghouse Tragedy: An Episode in the Life of a New England Town.

University of New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1998.

Hall, David.
Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England.

New York: Alfred Knopf, 1989.
This is about an earlier period but may be useful as background.

Juster, Susan.
Disorderly Women: Sexual Politics and Evangelicalism in Revolutionary New England.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Halttunen, Karen.
Murder Most Foul: The Killer and the America Gothic Imagination.

Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Heyrman, Christine.
Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt.

New York: Knopf, 1997.

Marini, Stephen.
Radical Sects of Revolutionary New England.

Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Taylor, Alan.
Liberty Men and Great Proprietors: The Revolutionary Settlement on the Maine Frontier, 1760-1820.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher.
A Midwife's Tale: Discovering the Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary 1785-1812.

New York: Alfred Knopf, 1990.

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  Courtship, Marriage, and Sexuality


Cressy, David.
Birth, Marriage, and Death: Ritual, Religion, and the Life-Cycle in Tudor and Stuart England.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Daniels, Bruce C.
Puritans at Play: Leisure and Recreation in Colonial New England.

New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

Doten, Dana.
The Art of Bundling, Being an Inquiry into the Nature & Origins of the Curious but Universal Folkcustom.

The Countryman Press and Farrar & Rinehart, 1938.

D'Emilio, John, and Estelle B. Freedman.
Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America.

New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Grossberg, Michael.
Governing the Hearth: Law and Family in Nineteenth-Century America.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina press, 1985.

MacMarlane, Alan.
Marriage and Love in England, 1300-1840.

Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

Nelson, William E.
Americanization of the Common Law: The Impact of Legal Change on Massachusetts Society, 1760-1830.

Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Rothman, Ellen K.
Hands and Hearts: A History of Courtship in America.

New York: Basic Books, 1984.

Smith, Daniel Scott, and Michael Hindus.
"Pre-marital Pregnancy in America, 1640-1971: An Overview and Interpretation,"
Journal of Interdisciplinary History 4 (1975).

Stabler, Lois K., ed.
Very Poor and of a Lo Make: The Journal of Abner Sanger covering the years 1774-1782 in Keene, New Hampshire, and 1791-1794 in Dublin, New Hampshire.

Historical Society of Cheshire County. Portsmouth, NH: Peter E. Randall, 1986. Transcription of the original. Many entries that students could compare with Martha Ballard's diary.]

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher.
Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750.

New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Wall, Helena M.
Fierce Communion: Family and Community in Early America.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

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  Maine's History, from the Revolution to Statehood


Beard, Frank and Bette Smith.
Maine's Historic Places.

Camden, Maine: Down East Books, 1982.

Churchill, Edwin A., Joel W. Eastman, and Richard W. Judd, eds.
Maine: The Pine Tree State from Prehistory to the Present.

Orono: University of Maine press, 1995.

Clark, Charles E.
The Eastern Frontier: The Settlement of Northern New England, 1610-1763.

Hanover: The University Press of New England, 1983.

The Public Prints: The Newspaper in Anglo-American Culture, 1665-1740.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Clark, Charles E., James S. Leamon, and Karen Bowden, eds.
Maine in the Early Republic: From Revolution to Statehood.

Hanover: University Press of New England, 1988.

Leamon, James S.
Revolution Downeast: The War for Independence in Maine.

Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.

Noyes, R. Webb.
A Bibliography of Maine Imprints to 1820.

Stonington, Maine.

North, James W.
The History of Augusta, Maine (reprint of 1870 edition).

Somersworth, NH: New England History Press, 1981.

Sprague, Laura Felych, ed.
Agreeable Situations: Society, Commerce, and Art in Southern Maine, 1780-1830.
Kennebunk, Maine: The Brick Store Museum, 1987.

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  Material Culture and Everyday New England Life 200 Years Ago


Benes, Peter, ed.
The Farm: The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife Annual Proceedings June 14-15, 1986.

Boston: Dublin Seminar and Boston University, 1986.

House and Home: The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife Annual Proceedings 1988.

Boston: Dublin Seminar and Boston University, 1988.

Bushman, Richard L.
The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities.

New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Innes, Stephen, ed.
Work and Labor in Early America.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Karpel, Bernard, ed.
Arts in America: A Bibliography, Vol. 2 Painting and Graphic Arts.

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.

Larkin, Jack.
The Reshaping of Everyday Life 1790-1840.

New York: Haper and Row, 1988.

Nylander, Jane.
Our Own Snug Fireside: Intersections of Image and Reality in Perceptions of the New England Home, 1750-1860.

New York: Knopf, 1992.

Schlereth, Thomas J.
Material Culture Studies In America: an anthology, selected, arranged, and introduced by Thomas J. Schlereth.

Nashville, Tennessee: The American Association for State and Local History, 1982.

Sloat, Caroline, ed.
Meet Your Neighbors: New England Portraits, Painters, and Society.

Sturbridge, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992.

Smith, Barbara Clark.
After the Revolution: The Smithsonian History of Everyday Life in the Eighteenth Century.

New York, Pantheon Books, 1985.

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  Using Diaries and Journals


Andrews, William.
Journeys in New Worlds: Early American Women's Narratives.

Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Begos, Jane Dupree, ed.
A Women's Diaries Miscellany.

Weston, CT: Magic Circle Press, 1989.

Benstock, Shari, ed.
The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women's Autobiographical Traditions.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Culley, Margo, ed.
A Day at a Time: The Diary Literature of American Women from 1764 to the Present.

New York: Feminist Press at CUNY, 1985

Dodge, Elizabeth and Elizabeth Whaley.
Weaving in the Women: Transforming the High School English Curriculum.

Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1994.

Earle, Alice Morse.
School-Life in Colonial Days.

New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1898.

Franklin, Penelope.
Private Pages: Diaries of American Women, 1830's-1970's.

New York: Ballantine, 1985.

Freibert, Lucy M. and Barbara A. White, eds.
Hidden Hands: An Anthology of American Women Writers, 1790-1870.

New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1985.

Gannett, Cinthia.
Gender and The Journal.

Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Harris, Sharon M., ed.
American Women Writers to 1800.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hobbs, Catherine, ed.
Nineteenth-Century Women Learn to Write.

Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Hoffman, Leonore and Margo Culley.
Women's Personal Narratives.

New York: Modern Language Association, 1985.

Simons, Judy.
Diaries and Journals of Literary Women from Fanny Burney to Virginia Woolf.

Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1990.

Soloman, Barbara Miller.
In the Company of Educated Women.

New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Stryker-Rodda, Harriet.
Understanding Colonial Handwriting.

Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1986.

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  Film and History


Abrash, Barbara.
Historians and Filmmakers: Toward Collaboration.

New York: The Institute for Research in History, 1983.

Barnouw, Eric.
Documentary: A History of the Non-fiction film.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Carnes, Mark, ed.
Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies.

New York: A Society of American Historians book from Henry Holt, 1995.

Dolan, Sean B., ed.
Telling the Story: The Media, The Public, and American History, Proceedings of a Conference Held April 23-24, 1993, Boston, MA.

Boston: New England Foundation for the Humanities, 1994.

Ferro, Marc.
Cinema and History.
Translated by Naomi Greene. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988.

Grindon, Leger.
Shadows of the Past: Studies in the Historical Fiction Film.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

O'Connor John E.
Image as Artifact: The Historical Analysis of Film and Television.

Krieger Publishing Company, 1990.

Teaching History with Film and Television.

Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1987.

Rosenstone, Robert, ed.
Revisioning History: Film and the Construction of a New Past.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Visions of the Past: The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Taves, Brian.
The Romance of Adventure: The Genre of Historical Adventure Movies.

Jackson Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.

Toplin, Robert Brent, ed.
Hollywood as Mirror: Changing Views of "Outsiders" and "Enemies" in American Movies.

Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Winston, Brian.
Claiming the Real: The Documentary Film Revisited.

London: British Film Institute, BFI Publishing, 1995.

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  The History of Midwifery in The United States


Apple, Rima D., ed.
Women, Health, & Medicine in America: A Historical Handbook.

New York: Garland Publishing, 1990.
Employs a variety of significant readings and sound historical feminist scholarship. Includes sections on Definitions of Health and Disease, Orthodox Health Care, Alternative Health Care, Social and Political Dynamics of Women's Health Concerns, and Health Care Providers. Good bibliography of works concerning women and health.

Arney, William R.
Power and the Profession of Obstetrics.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Arnup, Catherine, Andree Levesque, and Ruth Roach Pierson, eds.
Delivering Motherhood: Maternal Ideologies and Practices in the 19th and 20th Centuries.

London: Routledge, 1990.

Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate.
Not of Woman Born: Representations of Cesarean Birth in Medieval and Renaissance Culture.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Borst, Charlotte.
Catching Babies: The Professionalization of Childbirth, 1870-1920.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
Looks at a time when professionalized physicians and a health-care system split by gender gained more control over midwifery.

Cianfrani, Theodore.
A Short History of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1960.

Cressy, David.
Birth, Marriage, and Death: Ritual, Religion, and the Life-Cycle in Tudor and Stuart England.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Shows the English antecedents to Martha Ballard's work as a midwife in Maine. Looks at how society mediated important life passages.

Cushing, John D., ed.
The First Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Wilmington, Delaware: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1981.
A reprint of early laws, some of which regulated birth, sexuality, and marriage.

Cutter, Irving S., and Henry R. Viets.
A Short History of Midwifery.

Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1964.
A male-heavy history emphasizing clinical obstetrics and the transition to male practitioners from female midwives. Ranges from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, with much biographical information about European and American man-midwives.

DeVries, Raymond G.
Regulating Birth: Midwives, Medicine and the Law.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.

Eakins, Pamela S., ed.
The American Way of Birth.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.

Erlen, Jonathan.
The History of the Health Care Sciences and Health Care, 1700-1980: A Selective Annotated Bibliography.
New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1984.
Part of the Smithsonian Institution's series Bibliographies of the History of Science and Technology. Voluminous, with a section on midwifery. Predates much recent, significant work on midwifery.

Gelbart, Nina Rattner.
The King's Midwife: A History and Mystery of Madame du Coudray.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998
A new study of the eighteenth-century woman appointed by France's Louis XV to travel and teach country midwives their trade. Tells much about practices of the time as well as the power and politics of medical practice.

Gelis, Jacques.
History of Childbirth: Fertility, Pregnancy and Birth in Early Modern Europe.

Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991.

Golden, Janet.
A Social History of Wet Nursing in America: From Breast to Bottle.

Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Leavitt, Judith Walzer.
Brought to Bed: Child-bearing in America, 1750-1950.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1986
A ground-breaking look at how social and medical practices such as the search for painkillers in a clinical setting changed childbearing as a central part of female experience. Shows how women themselves were agents of change in childbirth practices.

———, ed.
Women and Health in America. 2nd rev. ed., 1999.

Leavitt, Judith Walzer and R.L. Numbus, eds.
Sickness and health in America. 3rd ed.

Lewis, Judith Schneid.
In the Family Way: Childbearing in the British Aristocracy, 1760-1860.

New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

Logan, Onnie Lee, and Katherine Clark.
Motherwit: An Alabama Midwife's Story.
New York: E.P. Dutton, 1989.
An as-told-to narrative of a "granny," an African-American lay-midwife's work in the twentieth century. She said, "I want to show that I knew what I knew."

Loudon, Irvine.
Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality, 1800-1950.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
An academic study stuffed with numbers correlating with issues and causes around maternal mortality. Argues that home deliveries by trained midwives made European maternal mortality rates lower than in Britain and the United States.

Marland, Hilary, ed.
The Art of Midwifery: Early Modern Midwives in Europe.
New York: Routledge, 1993.
Training, practices, and regulation of midwives varied from country to country. Scholarly essays look at England, France, Germany, Spain, and Holland.

———, trans. and ed.
"Mother and Child Were Saved": The Memoirs (1693-1740) of the Frisian Midwife Catharina Schrader.

Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1987.

Marland, Hilary and Mave Rafferty, eds.
Midwives, Society, and Childbirth.

Massachusetts General Court.
The Laws and Liberties of Massachusetts, 1648 (Reprint).
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1929.
A reprint of early laws, some of which regulated birth, sexuality, and marriage.

McMillan, Sally.
Motherhood in the Old South: Pregnancy, Childbirth and Infant Rearing.

Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

The Male Midwife and the Female Doctor: The Gynecology Controversy in Nineteenth-Century America (Reprint).
New York: Arno Press, 1974
Reprints of revealing sources from the nineteenth century that argued for and against women in midwifery and medicine.

Melosh, Barbara.
The Physician's Hand: Work, Culture, and Conflict in American Nursing.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982.
Examines the sexual division of labor that produced an almost exclusively female nursing force. Looks at the conflicts and issues within nursing such as resistance to professionalization, standards of control and pay, and work relations that reflected social relations in the larger society.

Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell.
Sympathy & Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Explores the history of American women in medicine from colonial beginnings as healers and midwives to twentieth-century challenges to "masculine" styles of practicing medicine. Highlights the female pioneers and the changes accompanying the movement of women into professionalized medicine.

Oakley, Ann.
Women Confined: Towards a Sociology of Childbirth.

New York: Schoken Books, 1980.

O'Dowd, Michael, and Elliott E. Philipp.
The History of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Robinson, Sharon A.
"A Historical development of Midwifery in the Black Community: 1600-1940,"

Journal of Nurse-Midwifery 29 (1984): 247-50.

Rooks, Judith Pence.
Midwifery and Childbirth in America.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.
A text covering historical, social, and medical trends. Contains a multi-page list of references.

Rothman, Barbara Katz.
The Encyclopedia of Childbearing.

Phoenix, Ariz. : Oryx Press, c1993.

Scholten, Catherine.
Childbearing in American Society, 1650-1850.

New York: New York University Press, 1985.

Sullivan, Deborah A., and Rose Weitz.
Labor Pains: Modern Midwives and Home Birth.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
Traces the re-emergence of home birth attended by female midwives as a reaction against the dominance of hospital-based, medicalized birth.

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher.
"Martha Moore Ballard and the Medical Challenge to Midwifery," in Charles E. Clark, James S. Leamon, & Karen Bowden, eds., Maine in the Early Republic.
Hanover: University Press of New England, 1988.
An article pre-dating the book A Midwife's Tale.

A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812.
New York: Vintage Books, 1990.
Uses a sharp eye and many documents to unravel meanings hidden in the seemingly mundane dailiness of a Maine midwife's diary entries. Pulitzer Prize, 1991. portions of this book can be read at this site

Wertz, Dorothy C., and Richard W. Wertz.
Lying-In: A History of Childbirth in America.
New York: Schoken Books, 1979.
From colonial America to the twentieth century. An illustrated account that is sensitive to gender, class, scientific changes, professionalization, and governmental regulation. One chapter covers social childbirth, like that which Martha Ballard and her neighbors practiced. Useful footnotes and bibliography.

Wilson, Adrian.
The Making of Man-Midwifery: Childbirth in England, 1660-1770.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
A solid, documented historicallook at English male practitioners of midwifery and possible reasons that they eventually superseded female midwives.


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  Some Early Midwifery Manuals and Publications


Buchan, William.
Advice to Mothers.
Philadelphia: 1804.
By the author of a popular handbook of home medical remedies and treatments of the time.

Culpeper, Nicholas.
Directory for Midwives.
London: 1651-1777.
Multiple editions by the author of the well-known herbal. Not kind to man-midwives and obstetrical intervention.

Blunt, John.
Man-Midwifery Dissected.
London: 1763.
Very concerned with the impropriety of males serving as birth assistants and obstetrical physicians. portions of this book are in the archive

Hunter, William.
The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus.

Birmingham: 1774.
Series of cut-away plates illustrating the uterus and positions of the fetus.

Nihell, Elizabeth.
A Treatise on the Art of Midwifery: Setting Forth Various Abuses Therein, Especially as to the Practice with Instruments
London: 1760.
Spares no words against man-midwives and their forceps.
portions of this book are in the archive

Raynalde, Thomas.
The Byrth of Mankynd.
London: 1545.
First published English manual of childbirth.

Sharp, Jane.
The Midwives Book, Or the Whole Art of Midwifery Discovered.
London: 1671.

Smellie, William.
An Abridgement of the Practice of Midwifery: and a Set of Anatomical Tables with Explanations.
Worcester: 1786.
The American version of the large, three-volume series of his lectures published in Britain.

Stone, Sarah.
A Complete Practice of Midwifery.
London: 1737.
Argues for the practices of female midwives and against those of man-midwives portions of this book are in the archive

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  The History of 18th-Century Western Medicine


Adams, Alice E.
Reproducing the Womb: Images of Childbirth in Science, Feminist Theory, and Literature.

Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Achterberg, J.
Woman as Healer: A Panoramic Survey of the Healing Activities of Women from Prehistoric Times to the Present.
Boston: Shambala, 1991.
Another side of the story. Suggests where (and why) women have been left out in many avenues of western medicine.

Austin, Robert B.
Early American Medical Imprints: A Guide to Works Printed in the United States 1668-1820
Washington: Department of Health and Welfare, 1961.

Booth, Martin.
Opium: A History.
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.
Puts the use of laudanum as a pillar of eighteenth-century medicine into a world-wide historical perspective.

Cassedy, James.
Medicine in America: A Short History.

Hopkins, 1991.

Conrad, Lawrence I., Michael Neve, Vivian Nutton, Roy Porter, and Andrew Wear.
The Western Medical Tradition: 800 B.C. to A.D. 1800
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Thorough and well-sourced text that acknowledges that western medical history is not a straight line of unbroken progress toward the scientific, professional, and technical. Attempts to acknowledge and integrate women in medicine, but the overall effect is still marginal.

Cowen, David L., and William H. Helfand.
Pharmacy: An Illustrated History.
New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990.
A glossy, wide-ranging view that allows one to see how the native and imported medicines in Martha Ballard's world fit into a larger history of the substances used as medicines in Europe and the United States.

Estes, J. Worth.
Dictionary of Protopharmacology: Therapeutic Practices, 1700-1850.
Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1990.
Contains much about the medical practices of Martha Ballard's time.

King, Lester S.
The Philosophy of Medicine: The Early Eighteenth Century.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Medical treatments were based as much on philosophical systems as on outcomes. In many instances, eighteenth-century treatments are best understood in such a framework.

Transformations in American Medicine: From Benjamin Rush to William Osler.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

Loudon, Irvine, ed.
Western Medicine: An Illustrated History.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Nineteen articles by as many authors.

Porter, Dorothy, and Roy Porter.
Patient's Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth-Century England.
Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989.
Much American medical practice came by way of Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Risse, G.B., R.L. Numbers, and J.W. Leavitt, eds.
Medicine Without Doctors: Home Health Care in American History.
New York: Science History Publications, 1977.
Turns an eye on one of the places where women have worked invisibly in medical history.

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